The 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing data analysis technique amplifies small fragments of hypervariable regions of the 16S rRNA gene. 16S rRNA gene encodes the RNA component of the small subunit of ribosomes. They contain regions which are less evolutionarily constrained and whose sequences are indicative of their phylogeny.
These methods are used to identify and compare bacteria or fungi present within a given sample.
It is useful in studying phylogeny and taxonomy from complex microbiomes or environments.
It is proven to be an efficient and cost-effective strategy for microbiome analysis and even allows for the imputation of functional content based on taxon abundances.